Schlagwort-Archive: differential learning

Change rules – a double drill

Playing the game with rules outside the rules brings players in a situation where they have to solve problems outside the manifested behaviour. We can manipulate court size, rules, time, counting, context of the game and other settings surrounding the game. This improves tactics and skills. In this double drill players have to adapt the direction of the service, the return in a double, the netplay and particularly in the teamwork collusion between server and netplayer.

CLA is not DL, but….

This is from Nick Jacques Tennis. Nice ideas for a constraints led approach (CLA). This already shows the difference between CLA and differential learning (DL). In the CLA the intention and the plan for the development of the skills is an idea of the coach („avoiding backswing“). In a DL approach the coach also offers different situations (like those in this video). But the solution is in the responsibility of the player, not in the responsibility of the coach!

Both approaches are implicit, but there is an important difference in the attitude to the learning athlet. While the coach in the CLA drill has a goal (backswing), the DL coach knows and intends nothing. The system „player“ is a black box and there is no expectation in the long term development of individual skills. The examples in Nicks CLA are in DL only one possible solution for the motion and will not be repeated.

Thx to Nick for the nice ideas 😀. I love his quote: „I have no influence over this as I am still with very little noise from me.“

3 constraint led approach drills that have helped reduce the size of my students take back. Lillian has previously been taught a large loop on her take back which has isolated her upper body from her lower body, making it very hard for her to adapt to the many different balls she would need to cope with in a match situation. Lillian has made great improvements on her coordination, here are a few key exercises that have helped her progress. Note how Lillian is intrinsically motivated as the exercises engages her and draws out the effort, you can see I have no influence over this as I am still with very little noise from me 🤗

Gepostet von Jacques Tennis Seminars am Freitag, 14. Dezember 2018

“ 3 constraint led approach drills that have helped reduce the size of my students take back. Lillian has previously been taught a large loop on her take back which has isolated her upper body from her lower body, making it very hard for her to adapt to the many different balls she would need to cope with in a match situation. Lillian has made great improvements on her coordination, here are a few key exercises that have helped her progress. Note how Lillian is intrinsically motivated as the exercises engages her and draws out the effort, you can see I have no influence over this as I am still with very little noise from me 🤗 „

Differential learning and proprioception

Differential learning (DL) and developing of grundstrokes by changing variations. Player starts from balance pad with fast steps on pad. The coach feeds balls out of the basket. Player plays the ball with the forehand crosscourt.

The essential of DL is to varify tasks and situations. One situation is only used in one training, In the next one, we set new .

Variations:

  • hanging the position of the pad
  • different tasks on the pad (on one leg, with the back to the coach, standing sidewards,…)
  • changing the position of the pad
  • changing ballfeed (in the video the coach throws the ball over (!) the baseline
  • changing target (longline, cross, long, short, with spin, small target, finishing the point with an opponent,…)
  • different pads

This drill additionally develops the proprioceptive awareness.

Constraints – your ideas?

In einem Facebook-Post habe ich nach Ideen für den abgebildeten Aufbau gefragt. Hier nun die Beschreibung meiner Idee:

Auflösung: In diesem Beispiel für differenzielles Lernen (Taktik- UND Technikentwicklung) durch veränderte Rahmenbedingungen war die Aufgabe folgende:

vorgezogener Aufschlag von der Midcourt-Linie (gelbe Linie quer), danach Punkt ausspielen.

Variationen:

  • Punkt im Einzelfeld ausspielen;
  • Punkt im 1/2 Einzelfeld gerade;
  • Punkt im 1/2 Einzelfeld diagonal (gelbe Linie in der Mitte);
  • Punkt im 1/2 Doppelfeld;
  • nur 1 Aufschlag;
  • unterschiedliche Bälle;
  • nur Vorhand;
  • 2. Ball muss Volley gespielt werden; ….

One or Two

Another practice example for differential learning. The instruction that players have to let the ball „once“ or „twice“ changes the perception and provokes a wider range of speed and distance. Following the instructions means to varify racketspeed and technique.

We practice one of the described drills only once or twice in a trainingseason. In the following training sessions we play at best variations (repetition without repetition!).

Different ways to go

Differential learning, forehand, dito backhand, dito volley.
Player is starting in the hoop. In the setting he hits the ball and goes back to the hoop, following the red mark.

Variation: mark in front, mark in the back, different starting positions in the hoop; ballthrow from different positions; ballfeed with racket from different positions;…

No explicit advice about stroke technique; high intensity; using stage of fatigue; no repetition, setting additional targets: net high/low; targets on the other court-side; …

 

Differenzielles Lernen auch im Badischen Verband

Offensichtlich gewinnt das Differenzielle Lernen immer mehr an Relevanz und Aufmerksamkeit. Auch die Tennisschule von Jürgen  Müller in Villingen, eingebunden in die Fortbildungsveranstaltungen des Badischen Tennisbunds, bietet dazu Fortbildungen an.

Referent ist Matthias Birkle, Tennistrainer beim TC Freiburg. Hier die Inhaltsbeschreibung seiner Fortbildungsveranstaltung am 3.3.2018 in Leimen:

Differenzielles Lernen im Tennis – Theorie und Praxis

Schwerpunkt Verbesserung des Aufschlags und des Volleys.

Die Theorie des Differenziellen Lernens erhält als trainingswissenschaftlicher Ansatz zunehmend Aufmerksamkeit. Studien in unterschiedlichen Sportarten zeigen schnellere und langfristig konstantere Lernergebnisse als mit der klassischen Wiederholungsmethode. Differenzielles Lernen ist auf der Theorie selbst lernender neuronaler Netze aufgebaut.

In die Trainingspraxis übertragen basiert die Theorie auf Lernen durch Variation und dem langfristig wirksamen Effekt des selbstinitiierten Lernens.  Die Rolle des Trainers verändert sich dahingehend, den Schüler durch ständige Variation der Aufgabe zur technisch richtigen Lösung zu führen. Der Kreativität des Trainers sind dabei nahezu keine Grenzen gesetzt, da gemäß der Theorie des Differenziellen Lernens auch Lernprozesse durch Fehler positiv beeinflusst werden, wobei ein klares Technikleitbild, das der Trainer verfolgt, essentiell ist.  Die Methode ist in allen Leistungsbereichen einsetzbar, wobei die Wiederholungsmethode damit nicht ersetzt, sondern ergänzt wird. Der Schwerpunkt des Vortrags wird Verbesserung der Schläge Aufschlag und Volley durch Differenzielles Training in der Praxis sein.

Differential learning enhances skills

from Ian Renshaw, Keith Davids et al: Motor Learning in Practice – A constraints-led approach. New York 2010, p. 79

Prof Wolfgang Schoellhorn has published about new methods in motor learning in sports research. His studies about differential learning form one of the most important fundamentals in our learning and coaching approach.

We transform this theory in games and drills for tennis. In the book „Motor learning in practice – a constraints led approach“ published by Jan Renshaw, Keith Davids and others, Schoellhorn describes in the article „Stochastic perturbations in athletics field events enhance skill acquisation“ of 2010 why differential  learning improves processes in comparison to traditional methods  significantly.

But read here: Stochastic perturbations in athletic field events