Intrinsic motivation vs early specialisation

„The athlete must have ownership over his or her sports experience. The goals pursued must belong to them…. They have to drive the bus, and we must be the navigator who helps them find the way. We can encourage, we can push them and hold them accountable for their ambitions and dreams, but ultimately, if it is you and not your kids in the driver’s seat, the trip will be a short one.“

John Sullivan, Changing the Game Project, „Is it wise to Specialise? p. 12

Constraints – your ideas?

In einem Facebook-Post habe ich nach Ideen für den abgebildeten Aufbau gefragt. Hier nun die Beschreibung meiner Idee:

Auflösung: In diesem Beispiel für differenzielles Lernen (Taktik- UND Technikentwicklung) durch veränderte Rahmenbedingungen war die Aufgabe folgende:

vorgezogener Aufschlag von der Midcourt-Linie (gelbe Linie quer), danach Punkt ausspielen.


  • Punkt im Einzelfeld ausspielen;
  • Punkt im 1/2 Einzelfeld gerade;
  • Punkt im 1/2 Einzelfeld diagonal (gelbe Linie in der Mitte);
  • Punkt im 1/2 Doppelfeld;
  • nur 1 Aufschlag;
  • unterschiedliche Bälle;
  • nur Vorhand;
  • 2. Ball muss Volley gespielt werden; ….

One or Two

Another practice example for differential learning. The instruction that players have to let the ball „once“ or „twice“ changes the perception and provokes a wider range of speed and distance. Following the instructions means to varify racketspeed and technique.

We practice one of the described drills only once or twice in a trainingseason. In the following training sessions we play at best variations (repetition without repetition!).

Thousand and one ways….

There is a lot of talk about „differential learning“ (DL) on this blog. There are now numerous studies and testimonials that this approach to motor learning has advantages over technology-based learning: more effective, more sustainable, more stress-resistant, more creative. In the DL, no specifications are made about the „correct technology“. Therefore, in tennis training, we also speak of „developing technology“ and no longer „learning and teaching technology“.

By constantly varying the task, as many possible solutions as possible for the impact technique to be developed should be offered. There are even offered movements that are actually outside the known solution space („error“). From this broad spectrum, players seek out the appropriate individual movement solutions. This movement solution is not explicitly specified, as in traditional technology lessons. It is therefore a special phenomenon for players who have developed their technique in DL, that they can not describe their movement, their individual technique, as a rule. They act, colloquially expressed, „intuitively“.

These movement tasks can be offered in drills (throw, play out of basket or play with the partner). Of course, they are also part of games. Because of the demonstrable advantages of playful and close-to-the-game learning, the DL should also be installed as often as possible in game forms.

Thousand and one ways…. weiterlesen

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